6The referendum and subsequent debates surrounding the validity of the “Brexit” process have led to a growing divide in the way complex legal, political questions are envisaged by modern-day “Roundheads” and “Cavaliers”. Gene Expression By Razib Khan June 16, 2007 10:10 PM. 16 December 1653 Oliver Cromwell declares himself Lord Protector. Cavaliers v Roundheads continued. History; 11-14; View more . 2 On August 22, 1642 King Charles I Declared War on Parliament 3 His followers were referred to as Cavaliers or Royalists. 31 January 2017. 1 February 2017. Electoral Commission, “EU Referendum Results”, 2016. https://www.electoralcommission.org.uk/find-information-by-subject/elections-and-referendums/past-elections-and-referendums/eu-referendum/electorate-and-count-information, last retrieved 17 November 2017. Dennis Compton, Ted Dexter, Bobbie Moore and Freddie Truman(?) 12A few days after the referendum, a leading barrister, David Pannick QC, wrote a column in the Times5 arguing that an act of Parliament was required to formally notify the EU of Britain’s intention to leave, implying that Theresa May could not do so as part of the government’s prerogative powers. 26Due to its own ambiguous nature, Brexit has been a divisive concept. Even prior to 1689, the Case of Proclamations3 (1610) had established that the Monarch could only legislate through Parliament. There’s the old Roundhead versus Cavalier fight. It’s not a political or cultural issue as much as it is a spiritual issue. Concurrently, Gina Miller, a businesswoman and campaigner, brought an action against the Secretary of State for Exiting the EU, staking her claim on the fact that the decision to invoke Article 50 had to fall under the purview of Parliamentary sovereignty rather than the Crown’s prerogative powers exercised by the government, which may be interpreted as a modern adaptation of the “Roundhead” stance of yore. While parts of the ruling initially acknowledged that, generally, the power to join (or withdraw from) international treaties falls within the purview of the Crown’s Prerogative powers devolved to ministers,6 the government cannot exercise that power where that might mean changing domestic laws passed by Parliament,7 hereby upholding the reasoning of the High Court. Title: The English Civil War Roundheads vs. Cavaliers 1 The English Civil WarRoundheads vs. Cavaliers (or you cant tell the players without a program!) Puritans bore us, it’s really a crime When your parliamentary business cuts our partying time. On the one hand, the government argued that the question of withdrawing from the European Union was a matter of international relations and international law, both of which usually fall within the scope of the Crown’s prerogative powers as traditionally exercised by the government. If you enjoy finding out more about our country’s rich history, then you’ll love BRITAIN magazine – the official magazine for VisitBritain. Natasha Foges Despite Corbyn’s orders, a fifth of all Labour MPs (47 out of 229, including Heidi Alexander, former Shadow Secretary of State for Health, and Ben Bradshaw, former Secretary of State for Culture, Media and Sport) voted against the bill.11 However, a large majority of opposition MPs diligently followed the line imposed by their leader although they might have been prominent figures in the “Remain” campaign or despite the fact that their constituencies had voted in favour of remaining in the EU in the referendum. Fought between 1642–1651, the English Civil War saw King Charles I (1600–1649) battle Parliament for control of the English government. This fight between supporters of the principle of Parliamentary sovereignty, as opposed to the government’s, has encouraged several observers to describe Britain’s current political situation in Civil War-era terms, as “Roundheads versus Cavaliers”. Nonetheless, the very question of the constitutionally acceptable manner to invoke Article 50 under UK law led to a landmark legal case revolving around the Constitution and notions of authority and sovereignty. The arguments used by both parties were grounded in different views of long-established constitutional evidence. Consequently, Theresa May has recently faced repeated calls to step down, even more increasingly so since her gamble to call a snap election in June 2017 to strengthen her majority in Parliament backfired spectacularly, much like Cameron’s referendum. The cavaliers enjoyed having a person in control 9 Slack, J. Cavaliers. 17-19 August 1648 The New Model Army, now headed by Oliver Cromwell defeat a Scottish-Royalist Army at Preston. However, realising they have been tipped off and have gone, he laments, “I see the birds have flown.”. Subject to any restrictions imposed by primary legislation, the general rule is that the power to make or unmake treaties is exercisable without legislative authority”. The latter one was the son of King Charles I. 21 November 2001 • 00:00 am . One of the earliest articles using the “Roundheads versus Cavaliers” metaphor to describe the current state of the Tory party indeed pre-dates the EU referendum,17 and likens then-Prime Minister David Cameron to Charles I, supported by his Cavaliers, opposed to the Eurosceptic Roundheads led by Iain Duncan Smith in the role of Oliver Cromwell. However, power struggles between the Monarch and Parliament (and their respective supporters) carried on throughout the 17th century and led to the Civil War, when Roundheads advocated the authority of Parliament while the Cavaliers staunchly defended Charles I’s powers. Cavaliers vs Roundheads 5th July 2011 by Spear's. As an expat from a different time, I presume Len Hutton, Jim Laker, Bobby Charlton and Peter May would be Roundheads. 2 R (on the application of Miller and Dos Santos) v Secretary of State for Exiting the European Union, [2017] UKSC 5; [2016] EWHC 2768. 5 Pannick, D., “Why giving notice of withdrawal from the EU requires an act of Parliament”, The Times, 30 June 2016. Therefore, any issue related to the UK’s membership in the European Union is to fall under the purview of constitutional law and entails a discussion about the flexible nature of the British Constitution. However, the issue of sovereignty is intricately connected to the long-standing divergent opinions about Europe within the Conservative party, which means that the opposition between “Roundheads” and “Cavaliers” is not only a feature of Theresa May’s Britain ; it has been raging for decades. It was later adopted by the Royalists themselves. 5 years ago. Finally, and perhaps above all, the “Roundhead v Cavaliers” metaphor may also be aptly applied to the divided state of the Conservative party. 3 September 1658 Cromwell dies and his son, Richard, becomes Lord Protector. Cavaliers-vs-Roundheads. On November 3rd, the Daily Mail ran a bewildering front page, featuring the pictures of all three High Court judges – Lord Chief Justice Thomas, Lord Justice Sales, and Sir Terence Etherton – under the headline “Enemies of the people”. Information. However, the debate surrounding the legal challenge helped bring into focus several constitutional issues linked, among others, to the separation of powers. In his lashing editorial,9 editor James Slack (who has, since then, been appointed as Theresa May’s personal spokesperson) further lambasted the three judges for being “out of touch” with the pro-Brexit people, and for “declaring war on democracy”. All three newspapers accused the High Court of creating a constitutional crisis, although the latter was brought about long before the judges’ decision due to the unprecedented nature of the withdrawal process. Review: Afternoon tea at 100 Queen’s Gate Hotel, Restaurant review: The Inn on Loch Lomond, Must see attractions from the Britain Guide, Portals to the past: The history of London’s blue plaques. Guillaume Clément, « “Roundheads vs Cavaliers” : The British Constitution and Parliamentary sovereignty in the face of Brexit », Observatoire de la société britannique [En ligne], 21 | 2018, mis en ligne le 01 novembre 2018, consulté le 18 janvier 2021. 1629 After Parliament objects to his collection of ‘tonnage and poundage’ taxes, Charles takes the drastic decision to dissolve Parliament, claiming he is accountable only to God. They were usually rich nobles and landowners. Sign in. The Justices remained on the side of constitutional consistency in this time of uncertainty. Nonetheless, the constitution specifically vests the higher courts, above all the Supreme Court, with the legitimacy to examine and settle intricate constitutional debates. £11.00. Roundheads vs Cavaliers - Civil War (KS3 History) (no rating) 0 customer reviews. But these contrasting views call into question more than the issue of Britain’s membership in the European Union. 13 “EU Referendum results”. The country is forced to choose between two camps: Royalists (known as Cavaliers) and Parliamentarians (known as Roundheads). King during the English Civil War. Lv 4. Besides vesting British citizens with basic human rights, this text further enacted the transfer of authority from the Crown to Parliament through a variety of measures : the Monarch was henceforth unable to disregard or suspend acts passed by the legislature and Parliament was the sole institution in charge of levying taxes, or maintaining a standing army in time of peace. Roundheads And Cavaliers. On the other hand, the Roundheads of today, in the opposition and in campaigners like Gina Miller, argue that centuries of history and constitutional developments mean that only Parliament should have the authority to implement the terms of the referendum and trigger withdrawal negotiations with the EU. During the early phases of the war, the Parliamentarians expected to retain Charles as king, but with expanded powers for Parliament. 23However, the referendum backfired spectacularly, and David Cameron was ironically pushed out of Downing Street by the very measure which was supposed to protect him from challenges to his leadership by the Eurosceptics, whose influence within the Conservative party remains, to this day, a thorn in Theresa May’s side. The judges’ powers may seem all the more impressive as, pursuant to the distinctive mechanisms of the common law system, higher court decisions are binding on lower courts, thus creating a source of law largely in the hands of judges. While this Civil War-era trope originally provided journalists with a witty -- yet fairly accurate -- way to describe the “Remain” and “Leave” sides prior to the referendum, the metaphor was soon afterwards expanded to illustrate opposed views both on the role of Parliament and on the nature of the British Constitution, as both have been considerably shaken by a necessary part of improvisation from the UK government in the face of such a daunting, unprecedented task as withdrawing from the European Union. Created: Feb 16, 2020. pptx, 411 KB. The wording of Article 50 itself is vague enough to give sufficient leeway for each member state to potentially act upon it and merely states : “Any member state may decide to withdraw from the Union in accordance with its own constitutional requirements”. 0 0. R (on the application of Miller and Dos Santos) v Secretary of State for Exiting the European Union, [2017] UKSC 5 ; [2016] EWHC 2768. About this resource. Nevertheless, Brexit’s intricacies have long outgrown this procedural question and have put several aspects of the British Constitution to the test, from the separation of powers to the representative function of MPs. As the saying goes, the Cavaliers were wrong but romantic, whilst the the Roundheads were right but repulsive. Perspectives britanniques, irlandaises et internationales, L'Irlande du Nord dans un Royaume en turbulences, Les services publics au Royaume-Uni et en France face aux politiques d'austérité, L'engagement en Ecosse autour de l'enjeu de l'indépendance, La gouvernance des politiques publiques au Royaume-Uni depuis 1997, Politiques familiales et politiques d’emploi « genrées » au Royaume-Uni et en Europe, Les signes religieux dans l’espace public, La nouvelle donne politique en Grande-Bretagne (2010-2012), Londres : capitale internationale, multiculturelle et olympique, Les politiques économiques des années Brown 1997-2010, Nouvelle gestion publique et réforme des services publics sous le New Labour, Le Parti conservateur britannique aujourd’hui, Les politiques de retour à l'emploi en Grande-Bretagne et en France, La Grande-Bretagne entre modèle américain et social-libéralisme, Portail de ressources électroniques en sciences humaines et sociales, Crown Prerogative versus Parliamentary sovereignty. It is worth mentioning that David Cameron, like many Conservative leaders before him, had been under repeated pressure from the party’s Eurosceptic wing to either renegotiate, or at least reconsider, Britain’s membership in the European Union. While the French or American Constitutions fit neatly into one easily identifiable document, the United Kingdom’s principles of government and human rights are held in a variety of constitutional documents varying in nature and purpose and dating from different eras. Roundheads were Parliamentary/Puritan soldiers who wore tight fitting un-orimented metal helmets, while Cavaliers were kings men who wore large hats with feathers as their uniform headdress. More importantly, Theresa May is now left with the undesirable task of sorting out this constitutional conundrum whilst facing the same game of oppositions Cameron was himself facing. Bundle. Roundheads and Cavaliers - a comedy short film. The fight between hard Brexiters like Iain Duncan Smith or Michael Gove and pro-“Remain” Tories (like Kenneth Clarke, Dominic Grieve and Anna Soubry) rages on, thereby propagating the ancient, pre-Brexit opposition between Eurosceptic and Euro-friendly Tories, more than one year after the referendum. Hansard. 3The referendum’s results and subsequent political turmoil have not particularly helped settle the public debate in favour of the “Leave” or “Remain” sides once and for all. The Electoral Commission , 2016. Known as the Long Parliament, it lasts until 1660, largely because it passes an act forbidding its dissolution without members’ consent. On the other hand, the cavaliers supported the King Charles I and Charles II of England. Roundheads vs. Cavaliers/Royalists? 14While the courts sided with the claimant, who had made the principle of Parliamentary sovereignty the core of their case, it remains difficult to say whether the judges’ point of view can be labelled as that of “Roundheads”, if the Civil War-era metaphor is to be extended. 7Since the results of the referendum in June 2016, the question of the procedure Britain is to follow in withdrawing from the European Union has been raised almost daily and the entire process remains shrouded in mystery, uncertainty, and even controversy due to at least three factors. disguised King Charles escapes from Oxford and surrenders himself to Scottish forces at Newark. 4 Lord Hailsham, The David Dimbleby Lecture, BBC, 14 October 1976. Sign up for the Newsletter Sign Up. Natasha Syed Therefore, the use of the “Roundhead” and “Cavalier” allegories by several journalists in recent months go beyond the desire to write witty think pieces under catchy headlines and point to a true constitutional crisis brought about by Brexit. Cavaliers Cavalier refers to the ideals of feudal knighthood. 16The decisions of the High Court and of the Supreme Court were met with polarising – though quite predictable – reactions from the press. Follow our English Civil War timeline, which charts events that led up to the brutal uprising and the aftermath. The Times, “Remaking Europe” (Editorial), 18 June 2016, https://www.thetimes.co.uk/edition/comment/remaking-europe-h7lcgs8bw, last retrieved 17 November 2017. docx, 134 KB. 24Whether the metaphor is borrowed from the Civil War era or from a mutiny, the theme of rebellion in the Conservative party has been rife for many years. Newsletter. 10The constitutional struggles that the country went through in the 17th century do bear a passing resemblance -- though in a thankfully much more peaceful fashion -- to the current climate of uncertainty regarding the respective constitutionally-sanctioned powers belonging to Parliament and those falling under the spectrum of the Crown Prerogative as exercised by the government. By running such headlines, tabloids suggest that the people’s vote in the referendum is fully binding and unquestionable, thus strengthening their populist nature and trying to stir up a resentment of the judicial branch amongst their readership. David Cameron did end up campaigning for the “Remain” side of the referendum but his decision to let this referendum happen allowed him to rein in, albeit for a short period, the Eurosceptic wing and appear in control of his own party. At first glance, this argument might appear to hold water, especially when one considers the recent constitutional reforms enacted by Parliament to establish a clear separation of powers between the judicial and legislative branches, both of which used to be in the hands of the House of Lords until the Constitutional Reform Act 2005 created a separate Supreme Court (though former Law Lords still sit in the court today). This criticism is not, however, particularly new. https://www.electoralcommission.org.uk/find-information-by-subject/elections-and-referendums/past-elections-and-referendums/eu-referendum/electorate-and-count-information, https://hansard.parliament.uk/Commons/2017-02-01/division/43D8AC50-30D9-4CF0-8DCD-83439022CBB1/EuropeanUnion(NotificationOfWithdrawal)Bill ?outputType =Names, https://www.politico.eu/article/margaret-thatchers-ghost-haunts-brexit-campaign-eu-referendum-england/, https://gregmulholland.org/en/article/2017/1199233/statement-on-my-position-on-the-vote-on-article-50-the-eu-withdrawal-bill, http://www.mirror.co.uk/news/uk-news/tory-civil-war-looms-eurosceptic-7365843, https://www.thetimes.co.uk/article/c8985886-3df9-11e6-a28b-4ed6c4bdada3, http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-3903436/Enemies-people-Fury-touch-judges-defied-17-4m-Brexit-voters-trigger-constitutional-crisis.html, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2017/11/14/nearly-20-tory-mps-threaten-rebel-against-brexit-date-brutal/, https://www.thetimes.co.uk/edition/comment/remaking-europe-h7lcgs8bw, https://www.spectator.co.uk/2016/06/am-i-a-remain-roundhead-or-a-brexit-cavalier/, Catalogue des 552 revues. drastic decision to dissolve Parliament, claiming he is accountable only to God. This list could be expanded to include the Acts of Union (1707 and 1800), which created the United Kingdom as a country composed of different nations, and various other statutes which had an impact on the monarchy (Act of Settlement 1701, or even the Succession to the Crown Act 2013), on the separation of powers in the United Kingdom (Government of Scotland Act 1998, Constitutional Reform Act 2005) or on the people’s rights (Representation of the People Act 1832, Human Rights Act 2000). The debate below about circumcision has gotten fast and furious. 25To a certain extent, any Prime Minister’s term in office may be described as divisive along traditional lines of partisanship. On the Conservative side, only one MP voted against the bill, but the lone dissenter in question was none other than Kenneth Clarke, former Lord Chancellor and Chancellor of the Exchequer.10, 20On the other hand, Jeremy Corbyn imposed a three-line whip on the Parliamentary Labour Party, whose official position was to vote in favour of triggering Article 50, at least initially, in acknowledgement of the national result of the referendum – quite certainly as a sop to pro-“Leave” working class voters in Labour’s heartlands in the Midlands and the North of England. 1 The former, as advocates of the constitutional principle of Parliamentary sovereignty, argue that only Parliament has the authority to steer the UK out of the EU, while the latter object that such a policy decision should fall under the government’s Crown … Roundheads and Cavaliers made up the two opposing sides in the English Civil War, fought between 1642 and 1651. Roundheads vs Cavaliers. As a result, no ‘official’ definition of the British Constitution exists, though it is largely accepted to consist of a handful of texts, most of which are relatively ancient documents implementing limits to the monarch’s authority and introducing human rights, for instance Magna Carta (1215), the Petition of Rights (1628), the Bill of Rights and the Coronation Oath (1689). He had a Roman Catholic wife, Henrietta de Maria of France. In the latter, the Supreme Court established that notification of withdrawal from the EU could only be triggered by a vote in Parliament, hereby strengthening Parliament’s role in the Brexit procedure as opposed to the government’s Crown prerogatives. 4 January 1642 Charles arrives at the Houses of Parliament to arrest Pym and four other rebels. 18While the issue surrounding the Miller case was one of sovereignty (parliamentary or governmental), following the ruling, tabloids helped shift the debate towards two other kinds of competing sovereignties : the people’s (as expressed in the referendum) versus the courts’. 54-55: “The most significant area in which ministers exercise the Royal prerogative is the conduct of the United Kingdom’s foreign affairs. “European Union (Notification of Withdrawal) Bill, Division 135, Hansard, 1 February 2017. https://hansard.parliament.uk/Commons/2017-02-01/division/43D8AC50-30D9-4CF0-8DCD-83439022CBB1/EuropeanUnion(NotificationOfWithdrawal)Bill ?outputType =Names, last retrieved 17 November 2017. Cavaliers-vs-Roundheads. However, Lamb and Mulholland stand for different approaches on whose views they should represent through their parliamentary votes : while the former comes from North Norfolk, where 58 % of the electorate voted to leave the EU, voters in Leeds North-West, Greg Mulholland’s constituency, had voted to remain in the Union, meaning that Mulholland’s vote reflected the popular vote nationwide rather than his own constituents’.15. Some differences between the round-heads and the Cavaliers are that the cavaliers supported the King and the round-heads supported Parliament. Lord Hailsham, The David Dimbleby Lecture, BBC, 14 October 1976. ADVERTISNG Judah, B., “Thatcher’s ghost lurks over Brexit campaign”, Politico, 21 June 2016, https://www.politico.eu/article/margaret-thatchers-ghost-haunts-brexit-campaign-eu-referendum-england/, last retrieved 17 November 2017. A name first used by Roundheads as a term of abuse for the wealthier male Royalist supporters of King Charles I and his son Charles II of England during the English Civil War, the Interregnum, and the Restoration (1642–c. The old figureheads of the “Roundhead” movement like Iain Duncan Smith may have been replaced with new leaders able to pressure Ms May from within the Cabinet, like Foreign Secretary Boris Johnson, Brexit Secretary David Davis, or Justice Secretary Michael Gove, but, the “Roundhead” stance, acting and plotting in defiance of a disgraced leader, remains very much alive among hard Brexiters. Secondly, the fact that the United Kingdom is the first member state to ever try to leave the European Union means that the government (and EU officials alike) understandably have no choice but to pave their own way. Learn Cavaliers and Roundheads with free interactive flashcards. 30 January 1649 King Charles I is executed at Banqueting House in Whitehall, having been tried for high treason in Westminster Hall. 14 Greg Mulholland, “Statement on my position on the vote on Article 50”. While many broadsheets praised the courts’ careful appraisal of each side’s arguments and underlined the way their rulings protected democracy and the separation of powers, several pro-Brexit tabloids unsurprisingly took outrage with what was perceived not only as a measure which would delay the UK’s withdrawal from the EU, but also as a serious overstepping of the judge’s powers. Info. 17 Nelson, N., “Tory Civil War looms as Eurosceptic Roundheads threaten David Cameron and his Cavaliers”, Daily Mirror, 13 February 2016. 15 September 1643 Royalists agree a ceasefire with Irish Catholics. Receive the latest news, practical advice, videos and competitions in a monthly email put together by the magazine’s editorial team. At the very least, the final ruling does appear to strengthen the UK Parliament’s authority, not only when opposed to the government’s influence, but also with regard to the devolved legislatures in Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland.8 As a result of Gina Miller’s claim against the government, the Supreme Court was led to examine whether the Scottish Parliament and the Welsh and Northern Irish Assemblies were to be consulted by the government prior to triggering Article 50, but confirmed in its ruling that relations with the European Union were not part of the matters traditionally devolved to them. The Parliament of England was supported by the Roundheads. Soon after ascending to the English throne. Every issue is packed with our inspirational photography, fascinating features, shopping and travel advice. September 1640 Following the disaster of the Short Parliament, Charles is forced to recall Parliament for a second time as only it has the power to raise funds for the ongoing Bishops’ Wars. 'Cavaliers', the gentry of the northern and western areas, were Royalists and supported the king. Sign up for our email newsletter for the latest science news. 25 September 1643 Parliamentarians form an alliance with the Scots. On Tuesday Year 7 visited the National Civil War Centre in Newark.The first of our workshops involved the re-enactment of the trial of Charles I. Lorenzo took on the role of Charles and ended up being executed by Ava at the end of the trial. AccueilNuméros21“Roundheads vs Cavaliers” : The B... Brexit has been one of the defining features of Theresa May’s premiership. 22 August 1642 Charles declares war on Parliament by raising his standard in Nottingham. Of Scotland at Scone Castle, Perth cultural issue as much as it is dissolved after just three weeks )! 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